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The 364-day year of the book of Yovheliym (Jubilees)

Yovheliym (Jubilees) 6:36-38

For there will be those who will assuredly make observations of the moon how it disturbs the seasons and comes in from year to year ten days too soon. For this reason the years will come upon them when they will disturb the order, and make an abominable day the day of testimony, and an unclean day a feast day, and they will confound all the days, the holy with the unclean, and the unclean day with the holy; for they will go wrong as to the months and Shabbaths and feasts and jubilees. For this reason I command and testify to you that you may testify to them; for after your death your children will disturb them, so that they will not make the year three hundred and sixty four days only, and for this reason they will go wrong as to the New Moons and seasons and Shabbaths and feasts, and they will eat all kinds of blood with all kinds of flesh.

There are several things in response to this verse and I have written on them many times. First, it is an established fact that today a complete revolution of the earth around the sun requires 365.2422 revolutions of the earth. Any advocate of the 364-day calendar finds themselves more than a month short every thirty years, and in a century, you have moved an entire season.

Does this mean the scripture is inaccurate? No, not at the time that it was written. We know that Daniy’el considered the year to be 360 days, which is inconsistent with the solar year, and the 354-day lunar year.

Daniy’el (Daniel) 7:25
And he shall speak great words against El Elyon, and shall wear out the qodeshiym of El Elyon, and think to change times and laws: and they shall be given into his hand until a period of time and times and the dividing of time.

Chizayon (Revelation) 12:6
And the woman fled into the wilderness, where she has a place prepared of Elohiym, that they should feed her there a thousand two hundred and threescore days.

Chizayon (Revelation) 12:14
And to the woman were given two wings of a great eagle, that she might fly into the wilderness, into her place, where she is nourished for a time, and times, and half a time, from the face of the serpent.

Chizayon (Revelation) 13:5

And there was given unto him a mouth speaking great things and blasphemies; and power was given unto him to continue forty and two months. 

In this analysis, we see a likening of times as follows: Time, times, and dividing of time (half a time) = a thousand two hundred and threescore days = forty and two months.  In all instances, we have 30 day months, and a time which equals twelve 30-day months (12x30 = 360; 360x time (1) times (2) and half a time (.5) = 1260) and 1260/30 days = 42 months.

Year one:              360 days
Year two:              360 days
Year three:           360 days
Half-year:            180 days
                          1,260 days

Where one year has a 13th month, the year increases to 390 days:

Year one:               360 days
Year two:               360 days
Year three:            390 days
Half-year:             180 days
                           1,290 days

Daniy’el (Daniel) 12:11-13
And from the time of the removal of the daily lifting up, and the giving of the abomination of desolation, there shall be a thousand two hundred and ninety days. Blessed is he that waits and comes to the thousand three hundred and five and thirty days. But go you your way till the end: for you shall rest and stand in your lot at the end of the days.

So, a strong adherent to the 364-day calendar should probably reject the book of Daniy’el (and consequently, the book of Chizayon). Daniy’el seems to imply that in every three years, you would add another 30-day count (1290 days).

Chanoch (Enoch) is another text which contemplates a similar number of days in the year.  Chapter 74 gives us some detailed astronomical data that does not match our current measurements.

Chanoch (Enoch) 74:11-16
At those times there is an excess of thirty days belonging to the sun in five years; all the days belonging to each year of the five years, when completed, amount to three hundred and sixty-four days; and to the sun and stars belong six days; six days in each of the five years; thirty days belonging to them; So that the moon has thirty days less than the sun and stars. The moon brings on all the years exactly, that their stations may come neither too forwards nor too backwards a single day; but that the years may be changed with correct precision in three hundred and sixty-four days. In three years, the days are one thousand and ninety-two; in five years they are one thousand eight hundred and twenty; and in eight years two thousand nine hundred and twelve days. To the moon alone belong in three years one thousand and sixty-two days; in five years it has fifty days less, for an addition being made to the sixty-two days, in five years there are one thousand seven hundred and seventy days; and the days of the moon in eight years are two thousand eight hundred and thirty-two days. For its days in eight years are less eighty days, which eighty days are its diminution in eight years. The year then becomes truly complete according to the station of the moon, and the station of the sun; which rise in the gates; which rise and set in them for thirty days.

We read in the Book of Enoch that a solar year = 364 days. A lunar year (12 months x 29.5 days) 354 days, falls behind a solar year by 10 days. Chanoch (Enoch) takes these calculations farther and states that in 8 years the moon falls behind by 80 days. So, a lunar year will fall behind a solar year by 80 days after 8 years.

Conversely, our current 365.2422 days per year and lunar year equal to 354.372 days, means that in 8 years the moon will fall behind by 86.9616 days.

The Chart below shows difference between the solar year and lunar year if we are only speeding up the orbit of the Earth around the sun.  

Would Enoch's 80-day difference be possible with a 364-day year using the same calculation?

Again the moon is still making one rotation every 27.3 days in every one of the above calculations. The differences are due to the speed of the earth's orbit around the sun.

If this part of Chanoch (the Book of Enoch) was written by Chanoch, then the speed of the earth around the sun was 29.82 km/s during his time, which would equal a solar year of 364.81 days and a lunar month of 29.567017 days.*

Both of these books predate the book of Yahusha (Joshua).

Yahusha (Joshua) 10:12-13
Then spoke Yahusha to Yahuah in the day when Yahuah delivered up־את the Emoriym before the children of Yashar’el, and he said in the sight of Yashar’el, Sun, stand still upon Giv`on; and you, Moon, in the valley of Ayalon. And the sun stood still, and the moon stayed, until the people had avenged themselves upon their enemies. Is not this written in the Cepher of Yashar? So the sun stood still in the midst of heaven, and hastened not to come about a whole day.

The language that Yahusha (Joshua) uses in addressing the sun and moon is the language of ordinary observation still used today in the scientific age. Probably Yahusha (Joshua) and his contemporaries thought of the sun as moving around the earth, but his language should not be pressed to construct a "view of the universe" any more than should today’s reference to the rising and setting of the sun (Marten Woodstra, The Book of Joshua, Grand Rapids, Eerdmans: 1981, p. 175).

It is interesting to note that there is corroborating evidence from the modern science of ethnology that such an event occurred as Joshua records. In the ancient Chinese writings, there is a legend of a long day. The Incas of Peru and the Aztecs of Mexico have a like record. There is a Babylonian and Persian legend of a day that was miraculously extended. Herodotus, an ancient historian, recounts that while in Egypt, priests showed him their temple records, and that he read of a day which was twice the natural length of any day that had ever been recorded (Robert Boyd, Boyds Bible Handbook, pp. 122,123)

Some read the text to mean that a slowing of the movement of the earth is what happened. Instead of taking twenty-four hours for one rotation, it took from thirty-six to forty-eight hours. This would have given Joshua and his armies sufficient daylight to win the battle over their enemies without causing the major disturbances that would have happened if the earth stopped rotating.

It has been objected that if in fact the earth was stopped for a period of twenty-four hours, inconceivable catastrophe would have befallen the entire planet and everything on its surface. While those who believe in the omnipotence of Yahuah would hardly concede that he could not have prevented such catastrophe and held in abeyance the physical laws that might be brought to pass, it does not seem to be absolutely necessary (on the basis of the Hebrew text itself) to hold that the planet was suddenly halted in its rotation. Verse 13 states that the sun "hastened not to come about a whole day." The words "hastened not" seem to point to a retardation of the movement so that the rotation required forty-eight hours rather than the usual twenty-four (Gleason Archer, Encyclopedia of Bible Difficulties, Grand Rapids, Michigan: Zondervan, 1982, p. 161).**

Under this analysis, the calendar year goes from 364 days to 365 following this event.

Similarly in the book of Yesha’yahu we find a moving back of the sundial:

Yesha’yahu (Isaiah) 38:7-8
And this shall be a sign unto you from Yahuah, that Yahuah will do ־אתthis thing that he has spoken; Behold, I will bring again ־אתthe shadow of the steps, which is gone down in the sun dial of Achaz, ten steps backward. So the sun returned ten steps, by which steps it was gone down.

This story is reiterated in Melekiym Sheniy (2 Kings):

Melekiym Sheniy (2 Kings) 20:8-11
And Yechizqiyahu said unto El־Yesha`yahu, What shall be the sign that Yahuah will heal me, and that I shall go up into the house of Yahuah the third day? And Yesha`yahu said, This sign shall you have of Yahuah, that Yahuah will do־את the thing that he has spoken: shall the shadow go forward ten steps, or go back ten steps? And Yechizqiyahu answered, It is a light thing for the shadow to go down ten steps: nay, but let the shadow return backward ten steps. And Yesha`yahu the prophet cried unto El־Yahuah: and he brought ־אתthe shadow ten steps backward, by which it had gone down in the dial of Achaz.

Now we see how the additional time brought the year from a 365-day year to a 365.2422-day year.

In any event, Yoheliym, Chanoch, and other calendars seek to determine the length of the year by creating an algorithm to determine its calculation year after year.  That assumes that an algorithm is even possible. 

The Yom Qodesh, on the other hand is not calculated pursuant to an algorithm per se, but rather based on known observance. Assuming that the system continues to work without substantial aberration, its accuracy will continue.

* Guy Cramer, 360 vs. 365 http://xwalk.ca/360vs365.html
** Don Stewart, Did the Sun Actually stand Still in Joshua’s Long Day? https://www.blueletterbible.org/faq/don_stewart/don_stewart_625.cfm



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