Get the Cepher
See Inside! Shop Now Mobile App

Stephen Pidgeon's Blog

Blog: Blog

The Anomaly of Luke 3


Recently, a friend of the Eth CEPHER wrote us and brought to our attention a point that some have seen as an error in that section of scripture often referred to as the New Testament, namely the identity of the sons of Arpakshad set forth in Luqas (Luke) 3:36. 

We are going to take a look at this issue and discover why the Cepher Yovheliym becomes a critical part of the literature. 

First, the passage in question.

Luqas (Luke) 3:34-36
Which was the son of Ya`aqov, which was the son of Yitschaq, which was the son of Avraham, which was the son of Terach, which was the son of Nachor, 35 Which was the son of Serug, which was the son of Re`u, which was the son of Peleg, which was the son of Heber, which was the son of Shelach, 36 Which was the son of Qeynan, which was the son of Arpakshad, which was the son of Shem, which was the son of Noach, which was the son of Lemek,

Now we see here in Luqas the following lineage (in reverse):

Noach * Shem * Arpakshad * Qeynan * Shelach * Heber.

However, we don’t find that same list in Bere’shiyth, because the name of Qeynan is simply missing.

Bere’shiyth (Genesis) 10:21-24
Unto Shem also, the father of all the children of Eber, the brother of Yapheth the elder, even to him were children born. 22 The children of Shem; Eylam, and Ashshur, and Arpakshad, and Lud, and Aram. 23 And the children of Aram; Uts, and Chul, and Gether, and Mash. 24 And Arpakshad begat את eth-Shelach; and Shelach begat את eth-Eber.

The list here is one name shorter: 

Noach * Shem * Arpakshad * Shelach * Heber.

NOTE: [Here we note that the Septuagint is conspicuously short on text, as Genesis 10 completely omits any discussion of the sons of Shem, and when the text finally does set forth his generation, it does so in Chapter 11 and then reads as follows: 11:10 And these [are] the generations of Sem: and Sem was a hundred years old when he begot Arphaxad, the second year after the flood. Beginning and end of summary.

Because the Eth CEPHER includes additional testaments as to the lives and times of the Patriarchs in both the Cepher Yovheliym (Book of Jubilees) and the Cepher Yashar (Book of Jasher), we can look to these sources as well to see if we can glean additional information.

Yashar (Jasher) 7:15-16
And these are the sons of Shem; Eylam, Ashshur, Arpakshad, Ludiy and Aram, five sons; and the sons of Eylam were Shushan, Machul and Harmon. 16 And the sons of Ashshur were Mirus and Mokil, and the sons of Arpakshad were Shelach, Anar and Ashcol.

So, our reference here tells us of the three sons of Arpakshad, which included the patriarch Shelach, but does not include Qeynan as a singular son and the father of Shelach, as the lineage is described in Luqas (Luke) 3.  The problem remains.

Mosheh goes on to reiterate that Arpakshad was in fact the father and not the grandfather of Shelach.

Bere’shiyth (Genesis) 11:12
And Arpakshad lived five and thirty years, and begat את eth-Shelach:

An additional witness, particularly concerning lineage, can be found in the Chronologies of Ezra, in this case, in Divrei Hayamiym Ri’shon.

Divrei Hayamiym Ri’shon (1 Chronicles) 1:18-19
And Arpakshad begat את eth-Shelach, and Shelach begat את eth-Eber. 19 And unto Eber were born two sons: the name of the one was Peleg; because in his days the earth was divided: and his brother's name was Yoqtan.

The Septuagint gives us this litany:

The sons of Sem, Aelam, and Assur,  and Arphaxad, Sala,  Eber, Pheleg, Ragan, Seruch, Nachor, Tharrha, Abraam.

Again, there is no mention of Qeynan in any of these sources.

However, when we look to the Cepher Yovheliym, we finally find a source for this discussion in Luqas:

Yovheliym (Jubilees) 8:1-4
IN the twenty ninth jubilee, in the first week, in the beginning thereof Arpakshad took to himself a woman and her name was Rasu’eya, the daughter of Shushan, the daughter of Eylam, and she bore him a son in the third year in this week, and he called his name Kainam. 2 And the son grew, and his father taught him writing, and he went to seek for himself a place where he might seize for himself a city. 3 And he found a writing which former generations had carved on the rock, and he read what was thereon, and he transcribed it and sinned owing to it; for it contained the teaching of the Watchers in accordance with which they used to observe the omens of the sun and moon and stars in all the signs of heaven. 4 And he wrote it down and said nothing regarding it; for he was afraid to speak to Noach about it lest he should be angry with him on account of it.

Finally, Yovheliym supports the claim that Arpakshad had a son name Kainam (Qeynan). It is this record that then claims Qeynan was the father of Shelach.

Yovheliym (Jubilees) 8:5
And in the thirtieth jubilee, in the second week, in the first year thereof, he (Kainam) took to himself a woman, and her name was Melka, the daughter of Madai, the son of Yapheth, and in the fourth year he begat a son, and called his name Shelach; for he said: Truly I have been sent.

So we see that the writer of the Besorah Luqas (Gospel of Luke) must necessarily have relied on the Cepher Yovheliym for this lineage, as it is the only source telling us of this additional patriarch.

The Matthew Henry Bible Commentary says this about this passage:

“One difficulty occurs between Abraham and Noah, which gives us some perplexity, Lu 3:35-36. Sala is said to be the son of Cainan, and he the son of Arphaxad, whereas Sala was the son of Arphaxad (Ge 10:24; 11:12), and there is no such man as Cainan found there. But, as to that, it is sufficient to say that the Seventy Interpreters, who, before our Saviour's time, translated the Old Testament into Greek, for reasons best known to themselves inserted that Cainan; and St. Luke, writing among the Hellenist Jews, was obliged to make use of that translation, and therefore to take it as he found it.”

However, as we have seen by actually looking at the Septuagint, no such entry is made at all.

While we are at it, note that Kainam took a daughter of Yapheth to be his wife.  The Madai would come to be called the Medes (a tribe of the Medo-Persian empire) historically.  His own mother was the daughter of Shushan the son of Eylam, the son of Shem (Semetic). So the bloodline which would soon lead to Nachor and Avram followed also from the tribe of Yapheth. 

Therefore, with the inclusion of the Cepher Yovheliym, the anomaly in Luqas (Luke) 3 is explained. Otherwise, the reader is left wondering whether Luqas is in error. 

Get new posts in your inbox

Copy Feed URL

Top Posts

Strong's Concordance makes a case for the Sacred Names

Let us take a look at the name Yahuah, but more in depth at the name Yahusha. There is a well-known saying among the modern generations: "Haters gotta hate", and few manifest hatred as well as those who hate the Sacred Names. If you agree that there is in fact a name set forth in scripture f... Read More

Who are the ben’i Elohiym?

  Then they that were in the ship came and worshipped him, saying: Of a truth you are the Son of Elohiym. Mattithyahu (Matthew) 14:33 Here is this phrase we see the use of the Greek terms θεου υιος (Theos uios). The practice of the את ... Read More

The Book of Jasher | The Veracity of the Cepher Yashar

  There are those who flat-footedly declare the book of Jasher to be fake, claiming that the book was somehow reverse engineered, using Bible texts that appear to quote from it (and the examples are set forth herein) as just the opposite – that the writer(s) of Yashar somehow quoted the ... Read More

Genetics in Scripture 

As my studies continue, I find the correlation between scripture and the revelation of the science of genetics to be astounding. For instance, we see the very first book of scripture to be identified as Genesis. One deduction, which can be achieved in discernment, is to break this word into two word... Read More

For the Elect's Sake

Today's world is overwhelmed with trouble; but a unique promise is given to the Elect - a promise of hope and not fear; the promise of life and not death. It is for you to know these things and to find solace in the word of Yahuah. The promise made that there would be an Elect is the oldest promis... Read More
Shop Now Explore Other Books

Chazon (Revelation) 1:8

I am the א (Aleph) and the ת (Tav), the beginning and the ending, says Yahuah Elohiym, which is, and which was, and which is to come, Yahuah Tseva’oth.

Read More

Baruch Sheniy (2 Baruch) 51:8-9

For they shall behold the world which is now invisible to them and they shall behold the time which is now hidden from them: And time shall no longer age them.

Read More

Ezra Reviy'iy (4 Ezra/2 Esdras) 2:35

Be ready to the reward of the Kingdom, for the everlasting light shall shine upon you forevermore.

Read More

Devariym (Deuteronomy) 11:26-28

Behold, I set before you this day a blessing and a curse; A blessing, if ye obey the commandments of Yahuah Elohaykem, which I command you this day: And a curse, if ye will not obey the commandments of Yahuah Elohaykem but turn aside out of the way which I command you this day, to go after other elohiym, which ye have not known.

Read More

Shemoth (Exodus) 20:11

For in six days Yahuah made the heavens and the earth, the sea, and all that in them is, and rested the seventh day: wherefore Yahuah blessed the day of Shabbath, and hallowed it.

Read More

Bere'shiyth (Genesis) 1:1

In the beginning Elohiym created את the heavens and את the earth.

Read More

Yesha'yahu (Isaiah) 14:12

How are you fallen from heaven, O Heylel, son of the howling morning! how are you cut down to the ground, which did weaken the nations!

Read More

Yirmeyahu (Jeremiah) 31:31

Behold, the days come, says Yahuah, that I will cut a Renewed Covenant with the house of Yashar’el, and with the house of Yahudah.

Read More

Besorah Yochanon (John) 1:1

In the beginning was the Word, and the Word was with את Elohiym, and Elohiym was the Word.

Read More

Besorah Yochanon (John) 3:16

For Elohiym so loved the world, that he gave his yachiyd, that whosoever believes in him should not perish, but have everlasting life.

Read More

Besorah Yochanon (John) 14:21

He that has my commandments, and guards them, he it is that loves me: and he that loves me shall be loved of my Father, and I will love him, and will manifest myself to him.

Read More

Vayiqra (Leviticus) 23:4

These are the feasts of Yahuah, even holy assemblies, which ye shall proclaim in their appointed times.

Read More

Besorah Mattithyahu (Matthew) 1:21

And she shall bring forth a son, and you shall call his name Yahusha: for he shall save his people from their sins.

Read More

Besorah Mattithyahu (Matthew) 6:11-12

Give us this day our daily bread. And forgive us our transgressions, as we forgive those who transgress against us.

Read More

Bemidbar (Numbers) 6:24-26

Yahuah bless you, and guard you: Yahuah make his face shine upon you, and be gracious unto you: Yahuah lift up his countenance upon you, and give you peace.

Read More

Philippiym (Philippians) 2:10-11

That at the name of Yahusha every knee should bow, of things in heaven, and things in earth, and things under the earth; And that every tongue should confess that Yahuah is Yahusha Ha’Mashiach, to the glory of Elohiym the Father.

Read More

Tehilliym (Psalms) 23:1-2

Yahuah is my Shepherd; I shall not want. He makes me to lie down in green pastures: he leads me beside the still waters.

Read More

Tehilliym (Psalms) 91:1-2

He who dwells in the secret place of El Elyon shall abide under the shadow of El Shaddai. I will say of Yahuah, He is my refuge and my fortress: my Elohiym; in him will I trust.

Read More

Chazon (Revelation) 13:18

Here is wisdom. Let him that has understanding calculate the number of the beast: for it is the number of a man; and his number is χξς .

Read More

Romaiym (Romans) 8:38-39

For I am persuaded, that neither death, nor life, nor angels, nor principalities, nor powers, nor things present, nor things to come, Nor height, nor depth, nor any other creature, shall be able to separate us from the love of Yah, which is in Yahusha Ha'Mashiach our Adonai.

Read More

Qorintiym Ri'shon (I Corinthians) 13:13

And now abides faith, hope, love, these three; but the greatest of these is love.

Read More

Makkabiym Reviy'iy (4 Maccabees) 9:7-9

Make the attempt, then, O tyrant; and if you put us to death for our faith, think not that you harm us by torturing us. For we through this ill treatment and endurance shall bear off the rewards of virtue. But you, for the wicked and despotic slaughter of us, shall, from the divine vengeance, endure eternal torture by fire.

Read More

Daniy'el (Daniel) 12:1

And at that time shall Miyka’el stand up, the great prince which stands for the children of your people: and there shall be a time of trouble, such as never was since there was a nation even to that same time: and at that time your people shall be delivered, everyone that shall be found written in the cepher.

Read More

Chanoch (Enoch) 105:14-15

A great destruction therefore shall come upon all the earth; a deluge, a great destruction shall take place in one year. This child, who is born to your son shall survive on the earth, and his three sons shall be saved with him. When all mankind who are on the earth shall die, he shall be safe.

Read More

Yo'el (Joel) 2:28

And it shall come to pass afterward, that I will pour out my Ruach upon all flesh; and your sons and your daughters shall prophesy, your old men shall dream dreams, your young men shall see visions.

Read More