How much of our understanding of the epistles of Paul rests upon this single verse?
Ma’asiym (Acts) 13:9
Then Sha’ul, (who also is called Paul,) filled with the RUACH HAQADASH, set his eyes on him,
We rely on this one verse for the proposition that Sha’ul was also called Paul (in the Greek, Paulos). Is that what the Greek says?
Acts 13:9 σαυλος (Saulos) δε (But) ο (one) και (and) παυλος (Paulos) πλησθεις (imbued) πνευματος (spirit) αγιου (holy) και (and) ατενισας (steadfastly gazed) εις (at) αυτον (him).
So, a more accurate read of this passage is: But Saulos and one Paulos, imbued with the Holy Spirit, and steadfastly gazed at him.
Now, this would change everything, would it not? Because from this point forward, we have the acts of Paulos, and Saulos pretty much disappears from the scene. If in fact, we are talking about two different people, then the ordination of Saulos (Sha’ul) is limited to Sha’ul and not to Paulos.
A question which has always plagued me has to do with this name change. There is no other information concerning this name change other than this verse. Once he was named Sha’ul (but in the Greek, Saulos) and suddenly he becomes Paulos. Consider the name Pa’al in Hebrew, and whether a Pharisee fluent in the Hebrew would adopt this name:
pâʻal (פָּעַל) (Strong's 6466): a primitive root; to do or make (systematically and habitually), especially to practice: —commit, (evil-) do(-er), make(-r), ordain, work(-er).
So, we have a poorly interpreted text which assigns the Hebrew word for evildoer to a man formerly named after the first king of Yisra’el, based upon two Greek words - ο και. To me, this is extremely weak evidence.
Let us now consider the life of Apollos and compare to see if it is possible that Paulos was a person other than Saulos.
Apollonius is a Greek name; the Latin Romanized version would be Apollos. Apollos over a period of time, as well as convenience, morphed to Paulos. Paulos in its English format is Paul, but written in the ancient texts as Pol.
Apollos was born in the city of Tyana, in the Roman province of Cappadocia, in present day Turkey. At the age of twelve Apollonius moved to Tarsus and was educated there; Paul was also of Tarsus. Both Apollos and Paul were in Tarsus at the same time in their youth. As Newman points out, Apollos and Paul were also at Ephesus and Rome at exactly the same time. Apollos' biographer does not mention Paul at all, but Paul's biographer (Luqas) speaks of Apollos having been at Ephesus with him. Many of his teachings coincide with Paul of Tarsus, and Paul is said to have done many of the same things Apollonius did.
According to the Life of Apollonius of Tyana, by Philostratus, Apollos was often referred to as simply “Pol” the common nickname. Apollos was known to be an eloquent Jewish man who taught in the synogogues of Ephesus and Corinth and who baptized and preached in these same places. Pol’s scribe was Demas, according to this work.
Timotheus Sheniy (2 Timothy) 4:10
For Demas has forsaken me, having loved this present world, and is departed to Tasloniqiy; Crescens to Galatia, Titus to Dalmatia.
Marqus, Aristarchus, Demas, Luqas, my fellowlabourers. 25 The grace of our ADONAI YAHUSHA HAMASHIACH be with your ruach. Amein.
Is there more evidence that two men were present carrying forth the message? It appears so:
Qorintiym Ri’shon (1 Corinthians) 3:4-6
For while one says, I am of Sha’ul; and another, I am of Apollos; are ye not carnal? 5 Who then is Sha’ul, and who is Apollos, but ministers by whom ye believed, even as YAH gave to every man? 6 I have planted, Apollos watered; but YAH gave the increase.
Qorintiym Ri’shon (1 Corinthians) 3:22-23
Whether Sha’ul, or Apollos, or Kepha, or the world, or life, or death, or things present, or things to come; all are yours; 23 And ye are MASHIACH’S; and HAMASHIACH is YAHUAH’S.
Qorintiym Ri’shon (1 Corinthians) 4:6
And these things, brethren, I have in a figure transferred to myself and to Apollos for your sakes; that ye might learn in us not to think of men above that which is written, that no one of you be puffed up for one against another.
Bring Zenas the lawyer and Apollos on their journey diligently, that nothing be wanting to them.
The book called The Life of Apollonius of Tyana was secretly carried to the Near East where it remained over 1000 years. In 1801 it was brought to Europe and was translated into English.
So, we have a question when looking at the texts. We know the Geneva Bible translators, including John Calvin, considered many of the writings of Paul as pseudepigraphal writings, including Titus, 1 and 2 Corinthians, Colossians, Ephesians, Philippians, Philemon and Hebrews. We know that Romans was written by Tertius. Romayim (Romans) 16:22. So, can we give a full credit to Sha’ul, Paul, Pol, or Apollos?
According to Andrew S. Kulikovsky, in his Historical Context of Paul’s Letters To the Galatians and Romans, April 8, 1999, the book of Galatians has many problems in sourcing its origin. Kulikovsky writes: “There is no way of knowing for certain when the letter was written, where it was written, or even to whom it was written.” Commentators like to include as part of Galatia the southern regions of Phrygia and Lycaonia, although it begs the question why these regions would have different names other than Galatia. The map below distinguishes between the Kingdom of Galatia, into which Sha’ul never traveled, and Galatia maximus – the broader Galatia including the other regions. However, Kulikovsky goes on to say that “no commentator ever seriously disputed the idea that Paul's letter was written to Christians living in northern Galatia.” Yet, he elaborates: “there is no record of Paul ever going into the north Galatian region, yet he appears to be quite familiar with his audience.” “Paul couldn’t have written to both areas, because the letter implies that the churches of Galatia were all founded at about the same time, but in the light of Paul’s missionary journeys, this is impossible.”
So, we arrive at the question: what did Sha’ul/Paul/Pol/Apollos mean in this passage?
Galatiym (Galatians) 4:9-11
But now, after that ye have known YAHUAH, or rather are known of YAHUAH, how turn ye again to the weak and beggarly elements, whereunto ye desire again to be in bondage? 10 Ye observe days, and months, and times, and years. 11 I am afraid of you, lest I have bestowed upon you labour in vain.
Is the observance of days, months, times, and years weak and beggarly elements of bondage? In the Torah as delivered, Yisra’el is taught to observe days (namely six working days and the Shabbath), months (the first month and the seventh month), times (New Moons), and years (the Shemitah or the Sabbatical year and Yovheliym, i.e., the Jubilee). If this is so, then Sha’ul’s actions are directly contrary to such teaching.
Sha’ul kept the Shabbath: Ma’asiym (Acts) 13:13; 13:42; 13:43; 16:11-13; 18:1-4. Sha’ul kept the Pecach, Ma’asiym 20:1-6, and Matstsah (Unleavened Bread) Ma’asiym 20:6-7. Sha’ul kept Shavu’oth, Ma’asiym 20:16.
Ma’asiym (Acts) 18:21
But bade them farewell, saying, I must by all means keep this feast that comes in Yerushalayim: but I will return again to you, if YAHUAH will. And he sailed from Ephesus.
Qorintiym Ri’shon (1 Corinthians) 5:7-8
Purge out therefore the old leaven, that ye may be a new lump, as ye are matstsah. For even HAMASHIACH our Pecach is sacrificed for us: 8 Therefore let us keep the Feast, not with old leaven, neither with the leaven of malice and wickedness; but with the matstsah of sincerity and truth.
So, either Sha’ul/Paul is not denouncing the Levitical feasts set forth as feasts of YAHUAH for all generations, or someone else is writing the passage.
Consider the days, and months, and times, and years that we currently observe as Americans (how ye turn again to the weak and beggarly elements, whereunto ye desire again to be in bondage):
New Year's Day
Orthodox Christmas Day
Stephen Foster Memorial Day
Orthodox New Year
Lee Jackson Day
Martin Luther King Day
Robert E Lee's Birthday
Idaho Human Rights Day
Civil Rights Day
Tu Bishvat/Tu B'Shevat
National Freedom Day
Rosa Parks Day
National Wear Red Day
Chinese New Year
Shrove Tuesday/Mardi Gras
Susan B Anthony's Birthday
St. David's Day
Texas Independence Day
Read Across America Day
Employee Appreciation Day
St. Patrick's Day
Prince Jonah Kuhio Kalanianaole Day
César Chávez Day
National Tartan Day
National Library Workers' Day
Thomas Jefferson's Birthday
Emancipation Day observed
San Jacinto Day
Confederate Memorial Day
Administrative Professionals Day
Take our Daughters and Sons to Work Day
Orthodox Good Friday
Orthodox Holy Saturday
Orthodox Easter Monday
Kent State Shootings Remembrance
Cinco de Mayo
National Day of Prayer
National Nurses Day
National Explosive Ordnance Disposal (EOD) Day
Peace Officers Memorial Day
National Defense Transportation Day
Armed Forces Day
National Maritime Day
Harvey Milk Day
Emergency Medical Services for Children Day
National Missing Children's Day
Bunker Hill Day
American Eagle Day
National Korean War Veterans Armistice Day
Coast Guard Birthday
Purple Heart Day
Assumption of Mary
Bennington Battle Day
National Aviation Day
Senior Citizens Day
Women's Equality Day
Carl Garner Federal Lands Cleanup Day
National Grandparents Day
Constitution Day and Citizenship Day
National POW/MIA Recognition Day
Constitution Day and Citizenship Day
Air Force Birthday
Native Americans' Day
Gold Star Mother's Day
Child Health Day
Feast of St Francis of Assisi
Leif Erikson Day
Native Americans' Day
Indigenous People's Day
White Cane Safety Day
All Saints' Day
All Souls' Day
Marine Corps Birthday
Lincoln's Birthday/Lincoln's Day
American Indian Heritage Day
First Sunday of Advent
St Nicholas' Day
Pearl Harbor Remembrance Day
Feast of the Immaculate Conception
Feast of Our Lady of Guadalupe
National Guard Birthday
Pan American Aviation Day
Wright Brothers Day
Kwanzaa (until Jan 1)
New Year's Eve