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On the Scriptural Calendar

Posted by Stephen Pidgeon on Wednesday, December 4, 2013 at 3:49 AM

Before using the Yom Qodesh (the guide to the Torah Portion through to the end of the Feast of Tabernacles in 2017 – available for purchase here), the code of the Scriptural calendar must be deciphered!  If you herald from the Gregorian world, you will look at these dates and scratch your head.  So, to best understand the days we are discussing, we first review the calendar that is used in the development of this book.

We begin with the Jubilee.  What a great year a Jubilee year is.  It is the 50th year in a 50 year cycle called a Jubilee (in Hebrew, a Yovheliym), which is a year of freedom and reliance.

Vayiqra (Leviticus) 25:8-17

And you shall number seven Sabbaths of years unto you, seven times seven years; and the space of the seven Sabbaths of years shall be unto you forty and nine years. 9 Then shall you cause the shofar of the jubilee to sound on the tenth day of the seventh month, in Yom Kippur shall ye make the shofar sound throughout all your land. 10 And ye shall hallow את the the fiftieth year, and proclaim liberty throughout all the land unto all the inhabitants thereof: it shall be a jubilee unto you; and ye shall return every man unto his possession, and ye shall return every man unto his family. 11 A jubilee shall that fiftieth year be unto you: ye shall not sow, neither reap that which grows of itself in it, nor gather the grapes in it of your vine undressed. 12 For it is the jubilee; it shall be holy unto you: ye shall eat the increase thereof out of the field. 13 In the year of this jubilee ye shall return every man unto his possession. 14 And if you sell ought unto your neighbor, or buy ought of your neighbor's hand, ye shall not oppress one another: 15 According to the number of years after the jubilee you shall buy of your neighbor, and according unto the number of years of the fruits he shall sell unto you: 16 According to the multitude of years you shall increase the price thereof, and according to the fewness of years you shall diminish the price of it: for according to the number of the years of the fruits does he sell unto you. 17 Ye shall not therefore oppress one another; but you shall fear your ELOHIYM: for I am YAHUAH your ELOHIYM.

As we can see, the Jubilee year is announced on an important day on the calendar that is established first in Scripture.  We will call that calendar the Holy Calendar.  In that calendar, a year is called a shaneh שנה, a month is called a chodesh חודש, and a day is a called a yom יום.

So, you start your count at year one, which is the first year.  At the end of that year, you enter into year two, and so on.  Every seventh year is called a Sabbath year or a Sabbatical year.  So, when you have gone through seven of these Sabbatical years (year 7, 14, 21, 28, 35, 42 and 49) you arrive at the 50th year, which is the Jubilee year.  Then, you start your count again, beginning with year one.

Our Yom Qodesh assumes that the Gregorian year ending with 17 and 67 are Jubilee years, and that the Gregorian calendar year 2017 is the 120th Jubilee, or six thousand years from the breathing of the soul into Adam, the first man.

Jubilee Years

120:  2017

 90:      517

 60:    -983

 30:  -2483

119:  1967

 89:      467

 59:  -1033

 29:  -2533

118:  1917

 88:      417

 58:  -1083

 28:  -2583

117:  1867

 87:      367

 57:  -1133

 27:  -2633

116:  1817

 86:      317

 56:  -1183

 26:  -2683

115:  1767

 85:      267

 55:  -1233

 25:  -2733

114:  1717

 84:      217

 54:  -1283

 24:  -2783

113:  1667

 83:      167

 53:  -1333

 23:  -2833

112:  1617

 82:      117

 52:  -1383

 22:  -2883

111:  1567

 81:        67

 51:  -1433

 21:  -2933

110:  1517

 80:        17

 50:  -1483

 20:  -2983

109:  1467

 79:      -33

 49:  -1533

 19:  -3033

108:  1417

 78:      -83

 48:  -1583

 18:  -3083

107:  1367

 77:    -133

 47:  -1633

 17:  -3133

106:  1317

 76:    -183

 46:  -1683

 16:  -3183

105:  1267

 75:    -233

 45:  -1733

 15:  -3233

104:  1217

 74:    -283

 44:  -1783

 14:  -3283

103:  1167

 73:    -333

 43:  -1833

 13:  -3333

102:  1117

 72:    -383

 42:  -1883

 12:  -3383

101:  1067

 71:   -433

 41:  -1933

 11:  -3433

100:  1017

 70:   -483

 40:  -1983

 10:  -3483

  99:     967

 69:   -533

 39:  -2033

   9:  -3533

  98:     917

 68:   -583

 38:  -2083

   8:  -3583

  97:     867

 67:   -633

 37:  -2133

   7:  -3633

  96:     817

 66:   -683

 36:  -2183

   6:  -3683

  95:     767

 65:   -733

 35:  -2233

   5:  -3733

  94:     717

 64:   -783

 34:  -2283

   4:  -3783

  93:     667

 63:   -833

 33:  -2333

   3:  -3833

  92:     617

 62:   -883

 32:  -2383

   2:  -3883

  91:     567

 61:   -933

 31:  -2433

   1:  -3933

Now we know that the Jubilee year is a year of rest in the 50th year, and we know that every seventh year is a Sabbatical year, so years 49 and 50 are both Sabbath years.  That means two years in a row.   Now, for purposes of the last seventy years, let’s map the Sabbatical years:

2016/5999

2009/5992

2002/5985

1995/5978

1988/5971

1981/5964

1974/5957

1967/5950

1960/5943

1953/5936

1946/5929

Now, let’s map the Sabbatical years surrounding the birth of Yahusha HaNetzeri:

66/4048

58/4041

51/4034

44/4027

37/4020

30/4013

23/4006

16/3999

9/3992

2/3985

-5/3978

This answers all of the questions concerning the Jubilee year (except for that one question that remains unanswered).

Let’s continue and see if we can discover how the year- the Shaneh - is calculated.

Shemot (Exodus) 12:1-2

And YAHUAH יְהֹוָה  spokeאָמַר  to Mosesמֹשֶׁה  and Aaronאַהֲרוֺן  in the land אֶרֶץ of Egypt מִצְרַיִם, saying אָמַר2 This monthחֹדֶשׁ  shall be to you the beginningרֹאשׁ  of months חֹדֶשׁ: it shall be the firstרִאשׁוֺן  monthחֹדֶשׁ  of the yearשָׁנָה  to you.

As it turns out, this month is called aviv, which also describes a condition of the winter barley when it is ready for harvest.

Shemot (Exodus) 9:31

And the flax פִּשְׁתֶּה and the barleyשְׂעֹרָה  was smitten נָכָה: for the barleyשְׂעֹרָה   was aviv (in the ear) אָבִיב, and the flaxפִּשְׁתֶּה  was bolled גִּבְעֹל.

The months in scripture are named by their number, but there are exceptions.  For instance, it is possible to call the first month rishon (first), but there are numerous references to the month being called aviv – the month of the barley ripening and its harvest.

Shemot (Exodus) 34:18

The feastחָג  of unleavened breadמַצָּה  shall you keep שָׁמַר. Sevenשֶׁבַע  daysיוֹם  you shall eatאָכַל  unleavened bread מַצָּה, as I commandedצָוָה  you, in the timeמוֹעֵד  of the monthחֹדֶשׁ  Aviv אָבִיב: for in the monthחֹדֶשׁ  Avivאָבִיב  you came outיָצָא  from Egypt מִצְרַיִם.

The months on the Holy Calendar have names that are otherwise unknown, even though they are the true calendar.

  1. Aviv אָבִיב (Green grain) (known in the modern Jewish calendar as Nisan, which means redemption.

Vayiqra (Leviticus )23:5

  In the fourteenth אַרְבַּע עֶשֶׂר day of the first רִאשׁוֺן month חֹדֶשׁ at even עֶרֶב is YAHUAH’S יְהֹוָה passover פֶּסַח.

Devariym (Deuteronomy) 16:1 

Observeשָׁמַר  the monthחֹדֶשׁ  of Aviv אָבִיב, and keepעָשָׂה  the passoverפֶּסַח  unto YAHUAHיְהֹוָה  your ELOHIYM אֱלֹהִים: for in the monthחֹדֶשׁ   of Avivאָבִיב  YAHUAHיְהֹוָה  your ELOHIYMאֱלֹהִים  brought you forthיָצָא  out of Egyptמִצְרַיִם  by night לַיִל.

  1. Ziv זִו (bright flowers) (known in the modern Jewish calendar is Iyyar, which means introspection or self-healing.)

             Melekiym Rishon (1 Kings) 6:1

And it came to pass in the four hundred and eightieth year after the people of Israel came out of the land of Egypt, in the fourth year of Solomon’s reign over Israel, in the month Ziv, which is the second month, that he began to build the house of the Lord.

  1. Sheliyshiy שְׁלִישִׁי  (third) (known in the modern Jewish calendar as Sivan סִיוָן, which means the giving of the Torah.)

Divrei Hayamiym Rishon (1 Chronicles) 27:5 

The thirdשְׁלִישִׁי  captainשַׂר  of the hostצָבָא  for the thirdשְׁלִישִׁי  monthחֹדֶשׁ  was Benaiahבְּנָיָה  the sonבֵּן  of Jehoiada יְהוֹיָדָע, a chiefרֹאשׁ  priest כֹּהֵן: and in his courseמַחֲלֹקֶת  were twentyעֶשְׂרִים  and fourאַרְבַּע   thousand אֶלֶף.

Hadassah (Esther) 8:9

Then were the king'sמֶלֶךְ  scribesסָפַר  calledקָרָא  at that timeעֵת in in the thirdשְׁלִישִׁי  month חֹדֶשׁ, that is, the monthחֹדֶשׁ  Sivan סִיוָן, on the threeשָׁלוֺשׁ  and twentiethעֶשְׂרִים  day thereof; and it was writtenכָּתַב  according to all that Mordecaiמָרְדְּכַי  commandedצָוָה  unto the Jews יְהוּדִי, and to the lieutenants אֲחַשְׁדַּרְפְּנִים, and the deputiesפֶּחָה  and rulersשַׂר  of the provincesמְדִינָה  which are from Indiaהֹדּוּ  unto Ethiopia כּוּשׁ, an hundredמֵאָה  twentyעֶשְׂרִים  and sevenשֶׁבַע  provinces מְדִינָה, to every provinceמְדִינָה  according to the writingכְּתָב  thereof, and to every peopleעַם  after their language לָשׁוֹן, and to the Jewsיְהוּדִי  according to their writing כְּתָב, and according to their language לָשׁוֹן.

  1. Revi’iy רְבִיעִי (fourth) (known in the modern Jewish calendar as Tamuz תַּמּוּז, which means the sin of worshipping false gods.)

Divrei Hayamiym Rishon (1 Chronicles) 27:7

The fourth רְבִיעִי captain for the fourth רְבִיעִי month חֹדֶשׁ was Asahel עֲשָׂהאֵל the brother אָח of Joab יוֹאָב, and Zebadiah זְבַדְיָה his son בֵּן after אַחַר him: and in his course מַחֲלֹקֶת were twenty עֶשְׂרִים and four אַרְבַּע thousand אֶלֶף.

  1. Chamiyshiy  חֲמִישִׁי (fifth) (known in the modern Jewish calendar as Av  אָבwhich means father.)

Melekiym Sheniy (2 Kings) 25:8 

 And in the fifthחֲמִישִׁי  month חֹדֶשׁ, on the seventhשֶׁבַע  day of the month חֹדֶשׁ, which is the nineteenthתֵּשַׁע עֶשֶׂר שָׁנָה  yearשָׁנָה  of kingמֶלֶךְ  Nebuchadnezzarנְבוּכַדְנֶאצַּר  kingמֶלֶךְ  of Babylon בָּבֶל, cameבּוֺא  Nebuzaradan נְבוּזַרְאֲדָן, captainרַב  of the guard טַבָּח, a servantעֶבֶד  of the kingמֶלֶךְ  of Babylon בָּבֶל, unto Jerusalem יְרוּשָׁלַם:

 Shishshiy  שִׁשִּׁי (Sixth) (known in the modern Jewish calendar as Elul אֱלוּל, which means repentance.)

Divrei Hayamiym Rishon (1 Chronicles) 27:9

The sixth שִׁשִּׁי captain for the sixth שִׁשִּׁי month חֹדֶשׁ was Ira עִירָא the son בֵּן of Ikkesh עִקֵּשׁ the Tekoite תְּקוֹעִי: and in his course מַחֲלֹקֶת were twenty עֶשְׂרִים and four אַרְבַּע thousand אֶלֶף.

Ezra v Nechemyah (Nehemiah) 6:15 

So the wall חוֹמָה was finished שָׁלַם in the twenty עֶשְׂרִים and fifth חָמֵשׁ day of the month Elul  אֱלוּל, in fifty חֲמִשִּים and two שְׁנַיִם days יוֹם

 

  1. Ethanim איתנים (ever-flowing streams) (known in the modern Jewish calendar as Tishri.)

Melekiym Rishon (1 Kings) 8:2

And all the menאִישׁ  of Israelיִשְׂרָאֵל   assembledקָהַל  themselves unto kingמֶלֶךְ  Solomonשְׁלֹמֹה  at the feast חָג in the monthיֶרַח  Ethanim איתנים, which is the seventhשְׁבִיעִי  month חֹדֶשׁ.

  1. Bul בּוּל  (Produce/ rain) (known in the modern Jewish calendar as Kheshvan, which means the flood of Noah – in error.)

Melekiym Rishon (1 Kings) 6:38

And in the eleventhאֶחָד עֶשֶׂר  year שָׁנָה, in the monthיֶרַח  Bul בּוּל, which is the eighthשְׁמִינִי  month חֹדֶשׁ, was the houseַּיִת   finishedכָּלָה  throughout all the partsדָּבָר  thereof, and according to all the fashionמִשְׁפָּט  of it. So was he sevenשֶׁבַע  yearsשָׁנָה  in building בָּנָה it.

  1. Teshiy’iy תְּשִׁיעִי (ninth) (known in the modern Jewish calendar as Khislev  כִּסְלֵו, which means restful sleep.)

Zakaryah (Zechariah) 7:1

The ninthתְּשִׁיעִי  captain for the ninthתְּשִׁיעִי  monthחֹדֶשׁ  was Abiezerאֲבִיעֶזֶר  the Anetothite עַנְּתֹתִי, of the Benjamites בֶּןהַיְמִינִי: and in his courseמַחֲלֹקֶת  were twentyעֶשְׂרִים  and fourאַרְבַּע  thousand אֶלֶף. And it came to pass in the fourth אַרְבַּע year שָׁנָה of king מֶלֶךְ Darius דַּרְיָוֶשׁ, that the word דָּבָר of YAHUAH יְהֹוָה came unto Zechariah זְכַרְיָה in the fourth אַרְבַּע day of the ninth תְּשִׁיעִי month חֹדֶשׁ, even in Chisleu כִּסְלֵו;

  1. Asiyriy עֲשִׂירִי (tenth) (known in the modern Jewish calendar as Tevet טֵבֵת, which means divine grace.)

Divrei Hayamiym Rishon (1 Chronicles) 27:13

The tenth עֲשִׂירִי captain for the tenth עֲשִׂירִי month חֹדֶשׁ was Maharai מַהֲרַי the Netophathite נְטֹפָתִי, of the Zarhites זַרְחִי: and in his course מַחֲלֹקֶת were twenty עֶשְׂרִים and four אַרְבַּע thousand אֶלֶף.

  1. Asar ashtay עַשְׁתֵּי עֶשֶׂר (eleventh) (known in the modern Jewish calendar as Shvat שְׁבָט, which means tree of life.)

Divrei Hayamiym Rishon (1 Chronicles) 27:14

The eleventh עַשְׁתֵּי עֶשֶׂר captain for the eleventh עַשְׁתֵּי עֶשֶׂר month חֹדֶשׁ was Benaiah בְּנָיָה the Pirathonite פִּרְעָתוֺנִי, of the children בֵּן of Ephraim אֶפְרַיִם: and in his course מַחֲלֹקֶת were twenty עֶשְׂרִים and four אַרְבַּע thousand אֶלֶף.

  1. Asar Shenayim שְׁנַיִם עֶשֶׂר (twelfth) (known in the modern Jewish calendar as Adar אֲדָר, which means strength.)

 Divrei Hayamiym Rishon (1 Chronicles) 27:15

  The twelfth שְׁנַיִם עֶשֶׂר captain for the twelfth שְׁנַיִם עֶשֶׂר month חֹדֶשׁ was Heldai חֶלְדַּי the Netophathite נְטֹפָתִי, of Othniel עָתְנִיאֵל: and in his course מַחֲלֹקֶת were twenty עֶשְׂרִים and four אַרְבַּע thousand אֶלֶף.

          Ezra v Nechemyah (Ezra) 6:15

 And this דֵּן house בַּיִת was finished יְצָא on עַד the third תְּלָתָא day יוֹם of the month יְרַח Adar אֲדָר, which was הוּא in the sixth שֵׁת year שְׁנָה of the reign מַלְכּוּ of Darius דַּרְיָוֶשׁ the king מֶלֶךְ.

  1. Asar shalosh שָׁלוֺשׁ עֶשֶׂר (thirteenth) (known in the modern Jewish calendar as Adar Sheniy, which means renewed strength.)

Now we know the names of the months, but we don’t know how to calculate the days which begin the month, and we don’t know how to calculate the day of the first month. This has been a question for some time, but we can get a hint about how we calculate the first day of the month, for the first day in Hebrew is called Rosh HaKhodesh החודש ראש, which also means the New Moon.  Isn’t that convenient?

There is but one verse that reveals to us when the Rosh HaKhodesh is calculated, and this is:

Tehilliym (Psalms) 81:3

Blow upתָּקַע  the shofarשׁוֺפָר  in the new moon חֹדֶשׁ, in the time appointed כֶּסֶא, on our solemn feastחָג  day יוֹם.

There is a debate between the word found here, which is kehseh כֶּסֶא, which means (apparently) a feast of the moon, versus the word kahsah כָּסָה, its root, which means to cover, clothe, hide or conceal.

And what a debate this is!  Because there is only one sacred day which takes place on the first day of the month, this day is then exalted by this very verse to a “solemn feast day.”

Vayiqra (Leviticus) 23:24

Speakדָּבַר  unto the childrenבֵּן  of Israel יִשְׂרָאֵל, saying אָמַר, In the seventhשְׁבִיעִי  month חֹדֶשׁ, in the first אֶחָד  day of the month חֹדֶשׁ, shall ye have a sabbath שַׁבָּתוֺן, a memorialזִכָּרוֹן  of blowingתְּרוּעָה  of trumpets, an holyקֹדֶשׁ  convocation מִקְרָא.

This day is known as the day of shofar (trumpet) blowing, or Yom Teruah תְּרוּעָה.  Looking at the Psalm again, we find that a shofar is blown in the new moon, on our solemn feast day; so it seems to fit.

But Yom Teruah is not a solemn feast day; rather it is a miqra מִקְרָא, which means a public assembly; a convocation.  The feasts are specifically denoted as the feast of Matza מַצָּה (unleavened bread), the feast of Shevua שָׁבוּעַ (weeks) and the feast of Sukkah סֻכָּה (tabernacles) or Sukkoth in the plural.

Divrei Hayamiym Sheniy (2 Chronicles) 8:13

Even after a certain rateדָּבָר  every day יוֹם, offeringעָלָה  according to the commandmentמִצְוָה  of Moses מֹשֶׁה, on the sabbaths שַׁבָּת, and on the new moons חֹדֶשׁ, and on the solemn feasts מוֹעֵד, threeשָׁלוֺשׁ  timesפַּעַם  in the year שָׁנָה, even in the feastחָג  of unleavened bread מַצָּה, and in the feastחָג  of weeks שָׁבוּעַ, and in the feastחָג  of tabernacles סֻכָּה.

Here, the scripture distinguishes between the new moons and the solemn feasts, each of which are called moed מוֹעֵד, which means an appointed, solemn feast.  There are three solemn feasts: Matza, Shevua and Sukkoth.  Yom Teruah, on the other hand, is a miqra.

It seems, though, Yom Teruah has evolved to become a solemn feast day, most likely as a result of this Psalm.  In modern Judaism, the day is now declared to be the new year, or Rosh Hashanah.  Yom Teruah begins the seventh month, not the first month.  The first month is Aviv.

Yet, this Psalm reveals something more. When the word kehseh כֶּסֶא, is given the meaning to cover, clothe, hide or conceal, then the shofar is blown at the covered new moon, harkening the solemn feast day which is Sukkoth.

What is all this hubbub about the covered moon?  The reason this is so important is because this verse indicates that the first day of the month begins with the zero moon, not the sighting of the sliver moon.  This make the beginning of the month exactly the same distance to the full moon as it is from the full moon.

So how can we know the first day of the year?  Easy! When the barley is aviv (ripe for harvest), you can declare that moon cycle to be Aviv!  Historically, this is an impossible feat, because we were not there to give an eye witness account.  Therefore, we generalize.

The best way to understand this finding is to place the miqra of Bikoor (first fruits) on a day that is after the vernal equinox in the Spring and before the zero moon which begins the new month following the vernal equinox.  Simple as that.

Now, it is time to understand the cycle of the feasts and the appointed assemblies, so that you might make sense out of the timing in this book.  These are described generally in the book of Vayiqra (Leviticus) chapter 23.  To understand these days, you must realize that the day begins at sundown. Hence, the Sabbath, which is the seventh day (Sabbath in the common understanding) begins at sundown on Friday day evening.  The time following sundown, but before bedtime, is called the erev עֶרֶב, so the evening of the beginning of Sabbath is called Erev Sabbath.

Here is a chart for easy reference:

Pesach or Passover, the first of these mandated moediym (appointments), begins in our understanding at sundown on the 13th day of the month.  This evening would be called Erev Pesach, or the evening of Passover.  The following day during Passover, the lamb without blemish would be slaughtered in preparation for the solemn feast called an atsarah עֲצָרָה or chag חָג which begins the feast of Matza.

Matza continues for seven days, and during the course of this chag, there is necessarily a regular Sabbath (Sabbath).  The day after the Sabbath during Matza is an appointed assembly called First Fruits or Bikoor, which celebrates the harvesting of the barley and the end of the season of eating stored food.  This is partly why the leaven is removed from the house as part of the cleaning out of the pantry, if you will, in preparation for a new growing season.

Seven weeks following the feast of Bikoor (first fruits), or 50 days following the Sabbath within the Feast of Matza, we arrive at the center of the feasts called Shevua or Shevuoth (in the plural).  You may know this as Pentecost.

Ma’aseh (Acts) 2:1-3

And when the day of Pentecost was fully come, they were all with one accord in one place. 2 And suddenly there came a sound from heaven as of a rushing mighty wind, and it filled all the house where they were sitting. 3 And there appeared unto them cloven tongues like as of fire, and it sat upon each of them. 4 And they were all filled with the Ruach HaQodesh, and began to speak with other tongues, as the Ruach gave them utterance.

This is the day that the prophecy of Yochanan the Immerser was fulfilled, when he said the following:

Yochanan (John) 1:33

He that sent me to baptize with water, the same said unto me, Upon whom you shall see the Ruach descending, and remaining on him, the same is he which baptizes with the Ruach HaQodesh.

And of course, this brought to fruition the realization of the Brit Chadasha (the renewed covenant):

Ivriyiym (Hebrews) 8:8-10

For finding fault with them, he says, Behold, the days come, says YAHUAH, when I will make a new covenant with the house of Yisra’el and with the house of Yahudah: 9 Not according to the covenant that I made with their fathers in the day when I took them by the hand to lead them out of the land of Egypt; because they continued not in my covenant, and I regarded them not, says YAHUAH 10 For this is the covenant that I will make with the house of Yisra’el after those days, says YAHUAH; I will put my Torah into their mind, and write it in their hearts: and I will be their Elohiym, and they shall be my people.

From Shevua, we proceed to the seventh month, on the first day of the month, which is Yom (the day) Teruah (of the Shofar blast).  As explained above, this is the day that is celebrated as Rosh Hashanah within Judaism.  The sounding of the shofar in a particular way (a blast of nine short notes called the teruah) is a warning to the whole of the house of Yisra’el that there are 10 days to prepare the heart for repentance before YAHUAH. 

Ten days later, on the 10th day of the seventh month, Yom (the day) Kippur (of Atonement) is honored.  The description of this appointed day affirms that in the Hebraic tradition, the day begins as sundown and continues to the following sundown.  The verse below begins with “on the tenth day of this seventh month, but finishes with the command that “in the ninth day of the month at even (evening – i.e., sundown), from even to even.”  With this passage you can readily see that a day is from sundown to sundown, even though it begins on the “ninth” and is counted as the “tenth.”

Vayiqra (Leviticus) 23:27-32

Also on the tenth day of this seventh month there shall be a day of atonement: it shall be a holy convocation unto you; and ye shall afflict your souls, and offer an offering made by fire unto YAHUAH. 28 And ye shall do no work in that same day: for it is a day of atonement, to make an atonement for you before YAHUAH your Elohiym. 29 For whatsoever soul it be that shall not be afflicted in that same day, he shall be cut off from among his people. 30 And whatsoever soul it be that does any work in that same day, the same soul will I destroy from among his people. 31 Ye shall do no manner of work: it shall be a statute forever throughout your generations in all your dwellings. 32 It shall be unto you a Sabbath of rest, and ye shall afflict your souls: in the ninth day of the month at even, from even unto even, shall ye celebrate your Sabbath.

Finally, we arrive at Sukkah, or Sukkoth (in the plural).  This solemn feast begins on the 15th day of the seventh month, and continues for seven days, through to the 21st.  However, it is part of the practice to celebrate on the eight day (the 22nd of the month) the completion of the reading of the Torah.

Here is the command:

Vayiqra (Leviticus) 23:34-42

Speak unto the children of Israel, saying, The fifteenth day of this seventh month shall be the feast of tabernacles for seven days unto YAHUAH. 35 On the first day shall be an holy convocation: ye shall do no servile work therein. 36 Seven days ye shall offer an offering made by fire to YAHUAH: on the eighth day shall be an holy convocation to you; and ye shall offer an offering made by fire to YAHUAH: it is a solemn assembly; and ye shall do no servile work therein. 37 These are the appointed times of YAHUAH, which ye shall proclaim to be holy convocations, to offer an offering made by fire to YAHUAH, a burnt offering, and a meat offering, a sacrifice, and drink offerings, everything upon his day: 38 Beside the Sabbaths of YAHUAH, and beside your gifts, and beside all your vows, and beside all your freewill offerings, which ye give to YAHUAH. 39 Also in the fifteenth day of the seventh month, when ye have gathered in the fruit of the land, ye shall keep a feast to YAHUAH seven days: on the first day shall be a Sabbath, and on the eighth day shall be a Sabbath. 40 And ye shall take you on the first day the boughs of goodly trees, branches of palm trees, and the boughs of thick trees, and willows of the brook; and ye shall rejoice before YAHUAH your Elohiym seven days. 41 And ye shall keep it a feast to YAHUAH seven days in the year. It shall be a statute forever in your generations: ye shall celebrate it in the seventh month. 42 Ye shall dwell in booths seven days; all that are Israelites born shall dwell in booths:

In addition to the seven feasts, there are also seven fasts. Four fast days emerge from the scripture set forth in Zakaryahu (Zechariah) 8:19, which are declared to commemorate the destruction of both the first and the second temples, and the exile of the House of Yahudah into Babylon and beyond.  There are a total of seven tzomot (fasts) including the fast that is declared for Yom Kippur. 

Zakaryahu (Zechariah) 8:19

Thus says YAHUAH TSE’VAOTH; The fast of the fourth month, and the fast of the fifth, and the fast of the seventh, and the fast of the tenth, shall be to the house of Yahudah joy and gladness, and cheerful feasts; therefore love the truth and peace.

Ta’anit Bikooriym.  This is a fast of the first born which is only observed by first born males.  This fast commerorates the salvation from the tenth plague of the first born in Egypt, although following the destruction of the second temple, it also mourns the end of the Levitical priesthood.  This fast is observed on the day of Pesach (14 Aviv).

Tzom Revi’iy.  This is a fast day on the 17th of Revi’iy (Tammuz), which commemorates the breaking down of the wall of Yerushaliym by Nebu’chadnezzar, and the taking away of the Temple sacrifice during the siege of Titus in 70 A.D. This is the fast of the fourth month.

Tisha B’Av.  The ninth of Av (Chamishiy) is a well-known fast day which commemorates the tragedies of the Yahudiym.  The fast is known as the fast of the fifth month, and it is the second most important fast in the Yahudi world.  On the eve of the fast, it is customary to eat a boild egg sprinkled with ashes.

Tzom Gedaliah.  This is the fast of the seventh month, and is a fast that occurs immediately following the two day celebration of Yom Teruah, which occurs on the first day of the seventh month.  This fast commemorates the assassination of Gedaliah, the king who replaced Zedekiah, the replacement of Yahoikim, the last rightful king of Yahudah in the line of Jesse (until HaMashiach).

Yom Kippur.  The Day of Atonement (the 10th day of Ethanim (Tishri)) is the most set-aside day of the year.  This is a fast day and a Sabbath, so no work is permissible.  Here is the command:

Vayiqra (Leviticus) 16:29-31

And this shall be a statute forever unto you: that in the seventh month, on the tenth day of the month, ye shall afflict your souls, and do no work at all, whether it be one of your own country, or a stranger that sojourneth among you: 30 For on that day shall the priest make an atonement for you, to cleanse you, that ye may be clean from all your sins before YAHUAH. 31 It shall be a sabbath of rest unto you, and ye shall afflict your souls, by a statute forever.

Ezra 8:21

Then I proclaimed a fast there, at the river of Ahava, that we might afflict ourselves before our ELOHIYM, to seek of him a right way for us, and for our little ones, and for all our substance. 

Asarah B’Tevet.  The 10th day of Asiyriy (Tevet) is a fast day commemorating the fall of Yerushaliym.  The prayer, the Kaddish, is receitd on this day, and this is referred to as the fast of the 10th month.

Ta’anit Esther.  The fast of Esther is observed on three days before Purim, on Asar Shenayim (Adar) 11, and is traditionally a three day fast.

The Yom Qodesh from which this excerpt is taken, begins its Torah portions on Rosh Hashanah, the 1st day of Aviv, in the year 5996 (2013) of the Holy Calendar, and continues through the year 6000.  May that book be a blessing to you.

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